Aquarium bottom material

One of the first purchases most aquarists will make for a new aquarium, be it freshwater, saltwater, reef, discus, goldfish, cichlid or any other — is the gravel and substrate. Do you really need it? Are there alternatives? Much like the eternal home decorating debate of hardwood-versus-carpets, the battle brews among aquarists over what covers the bottom of their aquariums, a layer of substrate or nothing at all. So why has substrate become such an integral part of the aquarium culture, and why are some aquarists now looking past it in favor of the bare glass or acrylic bottom of their aquariums?
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Aquarium Gravel and Substrate vs Bare-Bottom tanks: Pros and Cons

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The Complete Beginner’s Guide to Aquarium Substrate

With rare exception, aquariums are set up with some sort of substrate covering the tank bottom. The substrate is available in a variety of colors and materials, giving aquarium owners a wide range of options when setting up an aquarium. Because the substrate isn't as easy to change as other elements in the aquarium, it's wise to spend some time choosing the type and color of the substrate before setting up the tank. The substrate serves several purposes.
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Substrate (aquarium)

In general, the substrate provides the fish with an orientation. Glass bottoms can irritate the fish, especially if the light is being reflected from the fixture on top of the tank. The substrate for a fish only aquarium serves the purpose of providing a surface for the beneficial bacteria to build colonies. The substrate should be about 2 — 2. Deeper layers especially with finer gravel sizes can pose a danger, given that food particles will sink into a less oxygenated area.
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When it comes to aquariums, the substrate refers to any loose material that makes up the bottom of your tank. It can be anything. The main reason people use a substrate is because it enhances the look of the aquarium. By using a substrate, you are creating a more natural environment for your fish. Enhances your fish — You can use the substrate to make your fish pop.
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